Why do people have toenails?

Nails, like human hair or the claws and hooves of animals, are made of keratin . New cells are formed in the root of the nail, hidden mostly under the skin. As new cells grow , the “old” ones are pushed out.

According to Wikipedia, the speed with which toenails grow depends largely on the terminal phalanx of the respective finger . That is , the people index fingernail grows faster than the ones of the little finger. Also, toenails seem to grow 4 times slower than finger nails.

The nail itself is colorless and transparent. We see it pink because of the vascularized tissue present underneath. Its color changes in certain circumstances. When you’re cold, nails bruise. Also, if you press on them they turn white as the blood flow on the veins underneath stops.

What are nails made of?

That half-moon you see on the toenail is called lunula. It is part of the root and consists of immature cells. As they grow , they will move to the top of the nail and become transparent. Lunula’s shape, size and color differs from one person to another and from one finger to the other. Lunulas are bigger on the index thumb, for seemingly unknown reasons.

Toenails also have cuticles representing other terminals. Although we get accustomed to cut the thin tissue that covers the nail, it is in fact meant to protect the root of impurities and micro-organisms that enter by it, but also to absorb any shock that might come through.

Have you ever wondered why toenails remain “glued” to the finger? It seems that their lower surface has small bumps and depressions that fit into one another like a puzzle sticking through.

Why do toenails exist?

Perhaps you’re used to them and do not consider them a major advantage. But if you had to live a few days without nails you would realize they do have a purpose. Scientists cannot tell exactly why we have toenails, but there are several theories present.

Some say that the nails are designed to protect the skin beneath them, which is highly sensitive. Indeed, if you’ve ever cut your nails short you realize certainly that which remains exposed skin is sensitive to any touch. However, over time, it gains more resistance. So it happens with those who lose a nail forever. Therefore, opponents of this theory claims that the delicate skin under the nail has emerged in response to the existence of the nail, and not vice-versa.

Another theory which is accepted by most specialists says that toenails exist simply because they are useful, although we do not use them so much as our ancestors used to.

The role of toenails

We use toenails to climb easier on different surfaces when we are barefoot. On the other hand, finger nails are used to clean fruits, seeds and nuts to peel to scratch us to open boxes, etc. . It is true that we would do without them, since we now own various tools such as knives, scissors and more. If we would run out of nails forever, perhaps we’d have a harder time to get used to using them.

Apart from humans, only monkeys have nails, the rest of mammals being “equipped” with claws. It seems that the man left without claws when the upper limbs began to be used for more delicate tasks, case in which the claws would have become puzzling.

Why is the Drinking Age 21?

The U.S. is only one of three developed nations who have set their drinking age over 18. You might ask, “Why do we bother? Why 21?” After all, the other two countries–Japan and Iceland–only set theirs at 20. There are only three other nations that set theirs as high as 21: Indonesia, Mongolia, and Palau. The rest either outlaw drinking entirely (for religious reasons) or set their legal limit at 18 or less. If so many other countries allow their youths to drink alcohol at 18 or younger, why do we set our limit at 21 years of age?

First, let’s take a moment to see how this all got started. By executive order, President Ronald Reagan established a commission to research drunk driving in 1982. One of many results of that research was a recommendation to legally set the drinking age at 21. The result was the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984. This legislation does not actually set a legal age for drinking in the U.S. Instead, the law “recommends” states enact their own drinking age laws at 21 and penalizes states that do not comply by withholding a portion of their federal highway funding. So, the federal law is a carrot-and-stick deal, where the powers that be tout the “lives saved” as their carrot and beat any reluctant states with the stick of lost funding.

But why 21? According to MADD, youths react to alcohol differently than adults do. They get drunk faster and have more trouble knowing when to stop. The CDC says that research indicates a 16% reduction in motor vehicle crashes with underage drivers in states that set their drinking at 21. But does this really prove that 21 is the way to go?

If we go back to President Reagan’s research commission, we’ll find that setting 21 as the age young people can start drinking legally was only one of the 39 recommendations they made. Many of these recommendations were implemented, including raising awareness, tougher DUI laws, mandatory sentencing for offenders, and mandatory seat belt usage, among others. Some people theorize that the combined effect has reduced drunk driving fatalities, not any single measure.

This theory is supported by current research that suggests that the higher drinking age postpones alcohol-related fatalities, instead of eliminating them. Youths who are 21, 22, and 23 years old die in higher proportions, offsetting the “lives saved” in the 16, 17, and 18 years old categories. Poor enforcement also takes its toll in lives lost. Teenagers still obtain access to alcohol. Some drink themselves to death by binging, literally poisoning themselves with alcohol. Others drink and drive, killing or harming themselves or others or both. Still others do things they would never do sober that endanger their lives.

So, it could be argued that making young people wait until they’re 21 to start drinking saves lives and it could be argued that other efforts are more effective. It’s hard to be sure. One thing you can take away from all of this is that responsible drinking is a necessity whatever age you happen to be. Drinking and driving is dangerous whether you’re 16, 21, 37 or 94. Binge drinking is dangerous, too, no matter how old you are. Wait to drink–there really is no good reason to rush! If you drink, drink responsibly every time.

Why Do Men Cheat?

Men and women alike go through trials, tribulations and temptations. We all find our own way of escaping them or dealing with them head on. However, a great number of us will also succumb to them. This is what happens to men in committed relationships. They cheat on their partners bringing hurt, shame and lack of trust into the relationship. Things never return to normal once a man cheats on his partner. The end of the relationship is all but certain.

However, we can avoid all of this if we clearly understand why men cheat. It is a rather simple question but the answers are a bit complex. In fact, men may cheat for a number of reasons. Nonetheless, here are the main reasons why men cheat.

They cheat because they are looking for adventure in the bedroom.

A sensual relationship between a man and his wife is extremely important. It should be passionate and constantly evolving. However, many marriages end up killing the spark that once ignited each time you and your partner were in the bedroom. You need to get this spark back. It is the reason why your man is seeking certain pleasures from other sources. You need to talk about your love life and then find ways of improving your experiences in the bedroom.

Men cheat because they feel neglected at home.

Many issues crop up within a marriage. These issues include bills, taking care of the children and work related problems. They all can be overwhelming at times. Your man needs to come home and feel as though you still care about him. He needs to understand that you still cherish him as you did before all the issues you are facing came up. Your man will seek attention and sympathy from another woman if he does not receive it from you. You need to make sure that your family issues never water down the love you both feel for each other.

They cheat as a way of ending the relationships with their current partners.

Men have muscles but that does not mean that they are emotionally strong. They may lack the words to tell their partners that their relationship is no more. Cheating on her may seem as the only option available to him as a way of getting out of the relationship. This is because cheating is usually a red line that many women do not want their men to cross. Such women immediately end the relationship once their partners cross this line. Your man could just be trying to end the relationship you both share albeit in a cruel and cowardly manner.

They cheat because they think that you will never find out.

This is a common reason for cheating among men especially those who travel on occasion during their work. They think that a brief affair far away or in secluded areas will not harm you since you will never discover. They try to be as discrete as possible. Ironically, a few successes often lead to complacency and eventually the truth always surfaces. Most women whose men are cheating almost always discover the bitter truth.

Why Do We Yawn?

Why do we yawn? This question has not been definitively answered, but there is plenty of conjecture on the subject. It is assumed that yawning must serve some purpose or function, but what has not been agreed upon. In simplest terms, all humans yawn and most animals having vertebrates do also, but why is still unknown.

In recent years, a number of experimental tests have been trying to understand what yawning does for human beings. This work has primarily been conducted by a Princeton University researcher named Andrew C. Gallup, PhD. His work has experimented with human beings, parakeets, and rats. The data gathered during these tests is attempting to find out what makes each species yawn. The primary conclusion Gallup has come to is simple, but has many skeptics questioning it. Gallup believes that all yawning is essentially a way of cooling our brains, at least in theory.

The hypothesis of yawning as a method of brain cooling, goes like this basically.

Yawning itself, causes tremendous stretching with our jaws. The effect being increased flow of blood throughout the head, neck, and all facial areas. Inhaling breath while yawning, causes the downward movement of spinal fluids. It sends blood from the brain itself downward, as well. When cool air is inhaled during a yawn, these downward moving blood flows and spinal fluids become cooled. The overall hypothesis describes yawning similarly to how a radiator acts, by the inward and outward processes. Hot fluids are replaced with coolant, thus allowing the surfaces on the brain to stay cool. This theory has not been accepted by many skeptics in the scientific community.

The Gallup studies say that yawning should be more frequent, during cooler temperatures. Based on the brain cooling theory.

The experiments were conducted in Tucson, Arizona in winter and then again in summer. 80 people were asked to look at pictures of people who were yawning, since people tend to yawn when seeing others do so. Less than half of the 80 people yawned in response to seeing other people yawn, during the winter season. During the summer season, less than one quarter of the subjects yawned. These results were supportive of similar findings with rats and parakeets in earlier tests. The conclusions drawn say that yawning happens in response to cooler temperatures, because inhaling cooler air will cool the brain more. Yawning is a sort of involuntary response to having a hot brain, similar to how sweating spontaneously cools the body and it’s extremities.

Unfortunately, not everyone has been convinced of the Gallup study findings.

The skeptics say that yawning is a social form of empathic response to our environment. Yawning could be a sociological phenomenon, rather than a physiological one. It maybe a kind of evolutionary response mechanism, one that is governed by deep seeded triggers in human physiology. Supporters of this idea call it, the social theory of yawning.

For the time being, these are the only scientific studies or speculations as to, why we yawn. The answer is still a human mystery.

Why is the President Called the Commander-in-Chief?

A commander-in-chief is a person or a body that exercises supreme operational control of nation’s military and/or significant elements of the forces. It is a term that is normally used to refer to presidents and heads of states of countries.

Practically, the term commander-in-chief is used to refer to the military competencies that a nations executive head/head of state or head of government has. Normally, for a person to qualify a commander-in-chief he/she need not become a commissioned officer, neither should he be a veteran military officer.

The roles of a commander-in-chief are derived from the Latin word “imperatores” ,a term that refers to commanders-in-chief. The use of this term has come a long way. Its modern day use dates back to 1639 when it was first used by King Charles of England.

There are several reasons that qualify the president to be a commander in chief. Typically, the following are some of the duties that make a president that commander in chief.

1. 1. He /she issues orders to the military through a chain of command

A president issues orders though the chain of command that runs through secretaries for defense as well as chiefs of staff in the military. The powers vested on the president as the commander in chief will enable him/her to command troops and assign duties to them. The president also as a duty to move the military to any location that he/she deems fit provided that not restrictions are imposed by courts.

2. 2. The president plays a significant role of defending the state

As a commander in chief, the president exercises the powers vested on the office to ensure that the borders of the country are safe from external attacks. He/she has the powers to declare wars without consulting anyone in order to protect the nation, its possessions as well as its territories.

Another factor that should be understood is that the president has a power to supervise the establishment of military rules in war, proclaims. He/she can also supervise the establishment of military courts in territories that have been conquered. A country’s head of state will automatically hold the office of the commander –in-chief even if the executive powers of such post is held be a separate leader of government.

3. 3. The president has powers to seize an enemy’s property

Even though a president is not allowed by the international law to conquer territories, the same laws permits the president as the commander-in-chief to seize and take control of an enemy. In addition, he/she has the power to order the conduction of peace negotiations with enemies. Seizure of property should be on reasonable grounds e.g. if a country has been attacked.

Generally presidents are referred to as commanders-in-chief because they have powers and duties to deliver by making use of the nation’s military. While this term appears general, it is important to understand that is certain countries, the presidents as the supreme commander may have additional powers that are provided by the constitution. However, the president’s powers as a supreme commander should not go contradict the provisions of the international law. For instance, not president should forcibly acquire a territory or declare war on unreasonable grounds.

What Is the Fastest Way to Make Money in the Stock Market?

Making money in the stock market is not an easy task. It requires a lot of ingenuity, hard work and insight. In other words, you cannot just go into the stock market blindly and still expect to make a quick buck. Contrarily, you will end up losing all that you had. This happens to many people every single day. You need to ensure that your cash does not fall into the abyss. It will only become profit for others while you would have lost your entire life savings and/or pension.

There are fast ways of making money on the stock market. These ways do not necessarily mean that you may lose your entire investment by assuming greater risks. All you have to do is to study the market more keenly and invest when it is good to do so. Likewise, let go of your stock portfolios that may soon start falling. However, there is more to this than just his brief introduction into stock trading. Here are a couple of detailed ways in which you can mint your millions from the stock market.

You need to seize the opportunities that arise in cases of excess volatility.

The stock market operates like a zero sum game in most cases. One man’s loss will be another man’s profit. You need to understand this concept quickly. It will help you to make a lot of money. Great businesspersons take advantage of businesses when they are struggling or whenever anyone has given up hope on them. This is how JP Morgan made his first millions and this is how Warren Buffet at times chooses to invest. You need to buy shares during times of extremely volatility. Do not just buy any shares that drop but those that you see a potential of a comeback. This means that you should know little more about the industry dynamics and the company in question before you can decide to rely on it.

You need to start taking penny stocks a little bit more seriously.

Penny stocks are stocks whose share price is lower than the average share prices traded at the stock exchange. However, they bring in more return than the big share prices. This is because they tend to jump up in prices at a higher rate than ordinary shares. For example, shares that cost $0.2 but then jump up to $0.4 will have increased your profits by 100%. You can thus make millions if you invest in penny stocks that are promising now but have not yet caught anyone’s eyes. You can then sell them a higher price later on.

You need to focus on individual stocks.

You need to refrain yourself from immediately selling your shares immediately they go higher than your the price you paid for them. Selling them in a rush can deny you handsome profits later on. You need to keep shares that seem promising for years to come and then wait until you feel their business is saturated. You can then sell these shares at this point. You would make a lot of money. Remember, patience is important as long as the industry dynamics remain favorable.

Other means of making tons of money in the stock market include shorting stocks and trading in commodities and energy futures. However, you should as always exercise caution but take calculated risks all the same. Remember to diversify your portfolio so that your chances of incurring huge losses are minimal.